of football-like games dates back to Christ. Today’s modern football was created by the rules prepared by the Football Association established in England in 1863. FIFA states that the first game that resembles football and has scientific evidence is based on the cuju played for military education in China in 300-200 BC. In this game, a ball made of leather filled with bristle and wool is aimed to be inserted into a 30-40 cm high castle fixed by two bamboo straws. it was possible to touch the ball with everything except hands and arms. A few centuries later, in Japan, the play called izler kemari taşıyan , the first of which was discovered in 644 , appeared with traces of the jujid. In contrast to the non-competitive arch, the goal was based on players in a circular field hitting the ball with their feet and sending the ball to each other without dropping it to the ground. The first known game in Europe, similar to football, was the episkiros played in ancient Greece. In the game, where the body was in contact with each other, the players were divided into two teams, and each team tried to pass the ball through the line at the end of the opponent’s field by passing or throwing the ball. This game was later played under the name harpastum during the Roman Empire.
The first statements about a game played in medieval Europe are found in Nennius’ Historia Brittonum from the 9th century. The work, written in the northern parts of Wales, mentions that a group of children played ball. The aim of the game, which was played between neighboring towns or villages in England and called as mob football, was to send the ball to the designated area in the town or village of the opposing team. In this game, where there were almost no rules, there was no player limitation and hundreds of people were able to fight. During these events, King II. Edward was banned from playing football in the country on April 13, 1314, which was continued by the rulers thereafter and was banned for 300 years. The existence of a game similar to the mob football in England is also found in France. Soule, cholle or choule known as the first known data about this game dates back to 1147. It was forbidden to play such games in 1319 by V. Philippe and in 1369 by Charles V. In Italy, which originated in the 16th century, although the origin of the rules of the sport created in the 16th century called Calcio fiorentino, the goal was to send the ball to the opposing team. It was free to use the hands and feet to control the ball, pass to a teammate, and send it to the goal. FIFA states that not all football-like sports have a direct connection to today’s football.
APPEARANCE AND SPREADING OF MODERN FOOTBALL
The rules of modern football are based on the different forms of football played in different rules in private schools in the mid-19th century. The Cambridge rules, which were created at the University of Cambridge in 1848 with the participation of Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury representatives, contributed to the development of football and similar sports. Although some matches were made using these rules, they were not accepted by a large community. In the 1850s, various clubs in English-speaking countries separated from the schools or universities to which they belonged and began to operate as an independent organization. Some of them created their own rules, according to these rules began to play football. The Sheffield Football Club, founded by former students in 1857, pioneered the establishment of the Sheffield Football Association in 1867. Uppingham School student John Charles Thring also drafted rules in 1862.
After a meeting on 26 October 1863, the Football Association (English “The Football Association”, in short “FA”), the first comprehensive rules for football were prepared as a result of five meetings held between October and November of the same year. At the last meeting, the first treasure of the institution representing Blackheath, the club’s first treasurer, left the association after the decision to abolish the two draft rules stipulating that the ball from the previous meeting was handled and blocked by the opponent’s leg. The remaining eleven clubs, led by Ebenezer Cobb Morley, formed the first fourteen rules of football. The first match in which these rules were used was played on 18 December 1863 at Mortlake between Barnes and Richmond, who was not a member of the union and ended with a goalless draw. The first FA Cup, which was held by British clubs, was founded in 1872 by C. W. Alcock. The first official international football match was held on 30 November 1872, between England and Scotland in Glasgow and ended 0-0. In 1884, the first international football tournament
The British Home Championship was held. Aston Villa manager William McGregor established the first football league in 1888 with the English Football League in Birmingham. 12 teams competed in this league. The foundations of professionalization in football were laid in the 1870s, while professional football was recognized by the Football Association on July 20, 1885.
After the establishment of the Football Association, football began to spread all over the world by the British. The first known football match in South America was played by British workers in Argentina in 1867. In the same year, Buenos Aires Football Club, the first football club in South America, was founded. In 1891, with the national league in Argentina, the first football tournament on the continent was organized. The British footballers in South Africa started the first football movements in 1869, and in 1884 the first football tournament in the country was held. Created in 1884 by the American Football Association, the league was the first football competition in the United States to be held under the rules of the Football Association. The first known data about playing football in Japan date back to the 1870s, suggesting that British sailors played football in Yokohama. Following the spread of football, the International Soccer Association Board (IFAB), which determines the rules of football; The Football Association was founded after a meeting of the Football Association of Scotland, the Welsh Football Association and the Irish Football Association in Manchester in 1886. The International Association of Football Federations (FIFA) was founded in Paris in 1904 and stated that it would stick to the rules set by the Football Association. In 1913, FIFA representatives began to send representatives to IFAB. The process of professionalization in football gained momentum around the world in the 1920s and 1930s.
As of the 21st century, football is played by over 250 million players in more than 200 countries, making it the most popular sport in the world. According to a report published by FIFA in May 2007, more than 270 million people play football worldwide. According to this report, there are more than 301 thousand football clubs, over 1,752 million football teams, over 840 thousand football referees and over 113 thousand professional football players in the world.